1999年01期


卢长明,加藤正弘.油菜种间杂种的配子竞争力与染色体数变异规律研究[J].江西农业大学学报, 1999, (01): 000017-21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-2286.1999.01.005

卢长明,加藤正弘.Variation of chromosome number and fertilization fitness in gametes of interspecific hybrids between Brassica napus× Brassica campestris[J].ACTA AGRICULTURAE UNIVERSITATIS JIANGXIENSIS, 1999, (01): 000017-21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-2286.1999.01.005

油菜种间杂种的配子竞争力与染色体数变异规律研究

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卢长明
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加藤正弘
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1江西农业大学农学院,南昌,330045

2爱媛大学农学部,日本松山市

用甘蓝型油菜与白菜进行种间杂交(简称甘白交),研究其杂种配子的受精能力差异和后代染色体数目变异规律,结果表明:(1)甘白交F1代体细胞染色体数为2n=29,并发现有25%2n=24~31条染色体的异数体以及2n=39的个体.(2)甘白交F1配子染色体数为n=10~19,平均为n=13.68.不同染色体数配子出现频率不同.成对分离的配子中(14/15,13/16,12/17,11/18,10/19)往往染色体数较少的一种频率较高.(3)各种染色体数的配子均可形成可育的配子并参与受精形成种子,但它们参与受精并产生后代的竞争力(适合度)具有明显差异.n=10和n=19的配子竞争力最强,n=11,n=18和n=12的配子在非整倍体配子中竞争力较强,n=14,n=15和n=16的配子竞争力最差.(4)n=10的配子每增加一条染色体和n=19的配子每减少一条染色体配子适合度都相应降低.因此,n=14和n=15的配子适合度最低.(5)以甘白交F1杂种为母本可提高n=10~13配子频率和降低n=17~19配子频率,而以甘白交F1杂种为父本则能提高n=17~19配子频率和降低n=10~13配子频率.因此,在以选育2n=22为目标的非整倍体育种中,以甘白F1为母本为宜,而在选育甘蓝型油菜时,以花粉育性较高的甘白F1为父本较为有利.(6)甘白杂种配子育性的高低取决于A基因组的基因型.某些甘白组合配子育性较高可能是因为A染色体组排除C染色体负荷而提高配子平均适合度的结果.
语种:     中文   
基金:    
关键词:     甘蓝型油菜 白菜 种间杂交 染色体数 配子育性 适合度 染色体排除说

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